O Figo (Ficus carica) é o fruto da figueira, pertencente à família Moraceae.
É uma flor e também uma fruta. Quando começa a se desenvolver, é uma inflorescência – conjunto de várias flores unidas pela mesma base, o receptáculo. Depois, vai se tornando uma infrutescência – frutos ligados uns aos outros. O crescimento do receptáculo do figo é peculiar, pois ele acaba envolvendo o restante da flor e forma uma urna. Os grãozinhos presentes dentro do figo são os frutos, chamados caprifigos. Eles se formam graças à ação de uma vespa, a Blastophaga, que entra no figo ainda em formação e fecunda parte da flor em seu interior. Sem essa polinização, a fruta cai da figueira antes de amadurecer.


Seu formato é semelhante ao da pêra e mede entre 6 e 10 cm. Pode ser encontrado de vários tipos com tamanho, forma e cor diferentes, como por exemplo, pretos, roxos, vermelhos, verdes e até amarelos.
É plantado em vários países, já que se adapta em diferentes climas. Com origem no território da Ásia Menor, ou Turquia, o figo cresceu como destaque entre as frutas importantes do comércio característico da região do Mediterrâneo oriental, Estados Unidos, e ainda na Espanha. Engana-se quem pensa que o sabor do figo é desfrutado há pouco tempo, pois o fruto se mostrava presente desde a Antiguidade romana. Chegou ao Brasil no século XVI na bagagem dos primeiros colonizadores portugueses. Valinhos, localizado no interior de São Paulo é considerado destaque na produção de figo.
O figo verde é usado na produção de doces e compotas, o maduro é consumido in natura e utilizado na preparação de doces em pasta.
O período de safra compreende os meses de janeiro a abril.


O figo é altamente energético por ser rico em açúcar. Contém vitamina C, sais minerais como potássio, cálcio e fósforo. Ajuda na prevenção do câncer, devido à presença da substância benzaldeído.
Os benefícios do figo ainda se estendem àqueles que desejam manter a boa forma, pois a fruta é livre de gorduras, e 100 gramas da fruta fornecem apenas 74 calorias. O figo ainda possui baixo teor de Sódio, o que evita a retenção de líquidos, característica comum das pessoas que lidam com dificuldade de perda de peso.


O figo possui uma boa quantidade de sais minerais, destacando o Potássio, o Cálcio e o Fósforo, importantes para a formação dos ossos e para o bom funcionamento do organismo. O fruto também possui uma quantidade significativa de vitamina C, além de combater inflamações no sistema respiratório e possuir ação laxativa suave.
Pessoas que não gostam da ideia de comer insetos deveriam pensar duas vezes ao comer figos. Isso porque, quando as vespas pousam no figo para depositar o pólen, elas com frequência ficam presas lá dentro.
Figos podem ter uma vespa morta dentro deles. Porém, não é possível ver o corpo do inseto inteiro dentro da fruta porque, quando ele morre, uma enzima especial transforma a carcaça em proteína. Basicamente, o figo come a vespa e a transforma em uma parte de si. Inclusive, alguns fazendeiros chegam a controlar a quantidade de vespas que cada planta pode prender.

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