Parece uma paisagem alienígena: um mar sem fim de flores de gelo flutuando calmamente sobre um mar finamente congelado. Este curioso espetáculo natural é provocado pela cristalização da água na superfície do mar, sobretudo no oceano Glacial Antártico.
Durante o inverno polar, quando se forma gelo no oceano, muitas vezes é possível observar o crescimento de flores de gelo, estruturas complexas que são compostas de umidade atmosférica congelada com a salmoura sugada da superfície congelada do mar.


O transporte da salmoura para o interior destas estruturas significa que elas são excepcionalmente salgadas, em até cinco vezes a salinidade do oceano. Por este mesmo mecanismo, outras coisas na água do mar se concentram em flores de gelo, incluindo bactérias.
À primeira vista, as flores de gelo podem parecer cristais absolutamente sem vida. No entanto, elas representam ecossistemas em miniatura, peculiares e temporários. Por razões ainda inexploradas, a quantidade de micro-organismos vivos encontrados nas flores de gelo em meio às rigorosas condições do Ártico supera em algumas vezes a quantidade desses organismos sob a espessa camada de gelo. Cada flor de gelo contém aproximadamente um milhão de bactérias. Alguns cientistas sugerem, inclusive, que a vida na Terra tenha se originado em formações naturais semelhantes.


As flores formam-se sobre as novas camadas de gelo, que possuem fendas pelas quais escapam vapores de água saturados de sal. Ao emergir e entrar em contato com o ar frio da superfície, o vapor congela. Simultaneamente, os sais que existem sobre o gelo começam a cristalizar e transformam-se no núcleo central em redor do qual se forma a estrutura de água congelada.
Essas flores crescem sobre um gelo fino e recém-formado. Como a água passa diretamente do estado sólido para o gasoso, forma-se uma camada supersaturada de umidade sobre a superfície do gelo do Oceano Ártico que, diante de uma diferença de 20°C entre as temperaturas do gelo e do ar, esfria bruscamente e se condensa. No momento em que a temperatura do gelo recém-formado na camada supersaturada de umidade é de cerca de 0°C e a temperatura do ar é de -20°C, as flores do Ártico brotam em poucos segundos. Sobre esses cristais de gelo com alguns centímetros de altura, depositam-se aerossóis de sal.


Embora as flores de gelo sejam muito abundantes no Ártico e na Antártida, chegar até elas não é fácil. O gelo debaixo delas geralmente é muito fino para se caminhar, além de ser propenso a se deslocar com o vento. A estratégia de amostragem básica é encontrar um lugar onde a água é mantida aberta por ventos ou correntes.


Durante anos, as flores de gelo foram acusadas de destruírem a camada de ozônio antártica. As suspeitas baseavam-se nos óxidos de bromo que elas contêm no seu interior. Os cientistas alertavam que, apesar de tamanha beleza, as flores de gelo tinham um efeito potencialmente perigoso para a atmosfera. Justificavam este parecer no fato de que a luz do Sol desencadeava reações químicas no interior das flores e, como resultado, era liberada uma grande quantidade de formaldeído e compostos de bromo que poderiam destruir camada de ozônio do planeta. Os cientistas, porém, não conseguiram estimar exatamente quanto isso influenciava nos processos naturais e estudos posteriores confirmaram que a composição das flores de gelo não afetava de forma significativa a atmosfera.
Por outro lado, o aumento de gelo novo no Ártico sobre o qual crescem as flores de gelo deve se transformar em um estímulo para outros estudos desse fenômeno natural.


A natureza do Ártico é única em sua austeridade. As colinas cobertas de gelo e neve se transformam suavemente em céu nublado. Os limites entre o céu e a terra não são frequentemente visíveis. O que se vê é o vago contorno do Sol pálido através das nuvens de neve e manchas escuras da água que conseguiu aflorar através da espessura do gelo.
Infelizmente, as flores do Ártico são frágeis e de curta duração. Assim que a espessura do gelo novo aumenta e a sua temperatura se aproxima da temperatura do ar, essas estruturas desaparecem. A área de distribuição e a altura das flores de gelo dependem da camada supersaturada de umidade, que é influenciada por vários fatores, incluindo o vento.

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